روانشناسی

Physical Punishment

Why Physical Punishment Does Not Work

 

Paul C Holinger M.D.

“I’m sick and tired of violence… I’m tired of war and conflict in the world. I’m tired of shooting. I’m tired of hatred. I’m tired of selfishness. I’m tired of evil. I’m not going to use violence no matter who says it!” —Martin Luther King, Jr.

 

All human beings are born with universal built-in feelings. Darwin, Tomkins, Ekman, and others have shown that human babies are born with various responses to stimuli. These we call feelings: interest, enjoyment, surprise, distress, anger, fear, shame, disgust. As we get older, these responses combine with experience to form our more complex emotional life. In other words, feelings cause behaviors!

 

Overview of Physical Punishment

Physical punishment is a major public health problem. Approximately 60 percent of adults still approve of physical punishment, despite compelling evidence that it does not work, it makes things worse, and there are more effective alternatives. Physical punishment involves the use of physical force in order to correct or punish the child’s behavior. This includes hitting, pinching, whipping, slapping, and so on. One is not permitted to hit one’s spouse or a stranger; these actions are considered assault and battery. Why in the world should one be permitted to hit a smaller and even more vulnerable child?

Studies show that children who are hit are more likely to become aggressor themselves, i.e., bullies and future abusers of their children and spouses. They tend to learn to use violent behavior as a way to deal with disputes. If hitting a child is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

 

Research on Physical Punishment

The evidence shows that physical punishment is stunningly harmful at every developmental level. analyses of hundreds of studies document that physical punishment is associated with: verbal and physical aggression; delinquent, antisocial, and criminal behavior; poorer quality of parent-child relationships; impaired mental health; and later abuse of one’s own spouse and children.

 

The International Community and Physical Punishment

there is an international consensus that the physical punishment of children violates international human rights laws. 37 countries have now prohibited physical punishment and The United States is not one of them. Among these countries are Sweden, Germany, Spain, Greece, and Venezuela. More than 100 countries have banned physical punishment in schools but, Remarkably, It is still legal in 19 states in the United States.

 

Effective Alternatives to Physical Punishment

There exist a variety of alternatives which provide parents with a greater understanding of their children which can lead to less violent behavior and decrease the frustration and helplessness in parents.

Talking and using words instead of actions – talk rather than hit. Talk with the child about what behaviors are acceptable or not, what is safe or dangerous, and why.

Listening to the child – find out why he/she did or did not do something.

Explaining your reasons – this will enhance the child’s decision-making capacities.

Rewards and praise will enhance the child’s self-esteem. It will have a profound impact on the development of a child.

لغات و اصطلاحات

Physical punishment: تنبیه بدنی

be sick (and tired) of: بیزار شدن

violence: خشونت

war and conflict: جنگ و درگیری

shooting: صدای شلیک گلوله ،تیراندازی

hatred: نفرت

selfishness: خودخواهی

evil: شرارت 

It doesn’t work: جواب نمی دهد

Alternative: جایگزین

human being: آدمیزاد، انسان

built-in feelings: احساسات درونی

various responses: پاسخ های گوناگون

stimuli: محرک ها

distress: پریشان حالی

disgust: چندش، انزجار

As we get older: هرچقدر سن ما بالاتر میرود

combine: ترکیب کردن

form: شکل دادن، تشکیل دادن

In other words: به عبارت دیگر

public health problem: مشکل سلامت عمومی

Approximately: بطور تقریبی

approve of: موافق چیزی بودن

despite:  به رغم، علی رغم

compelling evidence: دلایل قانع کننده

more effective: موثرتر

in order to: به منظور

pinch: نیشگون گرفتن

whip: شلاق زدن

slap: سیلی یا چک زدن

permit: اجازه داشتن

spouse: همسر

assault and battery: تهدید به خشونت و ضرب و جرح

in the world:  اصلا ،آخر

more vulnerable: آسیب پذیرتر

more likely: به احتمال فروان، احتمال زیاد

bully: قلدر، زورگو

abuser: متعدی، متجاوز به حقوق کسی

tend to: گرایش داشتن، تمایل داشتن

violent: خشن

as a way: به عنوان راهی

deal with: رسیدگی کردن، سر و کار داشتن

dispute: مشاجره

evidence: شواهد

developmental level: مرحله رشد

associated with: مرتبط با

aggression: پرخاشگری

delinquent: بزهکاری

impaired mental health: نقص سلامت روانی 

international consensus: اتفاق نظر(وفاق) بین المللی

violate: ناقض بودن ،نقض کردن

international human rights laws: قوانین حقوق بشر بین المللی

prohibit:قدغن کردن

ban: ممنوع بودن، ممنوع کردن

Remarkably:  بطور قابل توجهی

legal: قانونی 

a variety of: انواع مختلف، چندین

provide parents with: برای والدین مهیا می کند

greater understanding: درک بهتری

lead to: منجر شدن به

decrease: کاهش دادن

frustration:  درماندگی

helplessness: عجز

instead of: در عوض، به جای 

rather than: به جای اینکه

acceptable: قابل قبول

enhance: ارتقا دادن

decision-making capacities: ظرفیت های تصمیم گیری

Rewards and praise: (پاداش و تحسین (پاداش دادن، تحسین کردن

profound impact: تاثیر عمیقی

متن مقاله اصلی در سایت psychologytoday:

Why Physical Punishment Does Not Work

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